Kia Picanto: Cylinder Block Assembly / Piston and Connecting Rod

Kia Picanto JA 2017-2022 Service & Repair Manual / Engine Mechanical System / Cylinder Block Assembly / Piston and Connecting Rod

Repair procedures
Disassembly
   
Use fender covers to avoid damaging painted surfaces.
To avoid damaging the cylinder head, wait until the engine coolant temperature drops below normal temperature (20°C [68°F]) before removing it.
When handling a metal gasket, be careful not to fold the gasket or damage the contacting surface of the gasket.
To avoid damage, unplug the wiring connectors carefully while holding the connector portion.
   
Mark all wiring and hoses to avoid misconnection.
Turn the crankshaft damper pulley so that the piston of No. 1 cylinder is at TDC (top dead center) on compression stroke.
1.
Remove the engine and transaxle assembly.
(Refer to Engine and Transaxle Assembly - "Engine And Transaxle Assembly")
2.
Remove the transaxle assembly from the engine assembly.
(Refer to Manual Transaxle System - "Manual Transaxle")
3.
Remove the flywheel.
(Refer to Cylinder Block Assembly - "Flywheel")
4.
Remove the rear oil seal.
(Refer to Cylinder Block Assembly - "Rear Oil Seal")
5.
Install the engine assembly to engine stand for disassembly.
6.
Remove the cylinder head cover.
(Refer to Cylinder Head Assembly - “Cylinder Head Cover”)
7.
Remove the thermostat housing.
(Refer to Cooling System - “Thermostat”)
8.
Remove the timing chain.
(Refer to Timing System - “Timing Chain”)
9.
Remove the intake manifold.
(Refer to Intake and Exhaust System - "Intake Manifold")
10.
Remove the turbo manifold module.
(Refer to Intake and Exhaust System - "Turbo Manifold Module")
11.
Remove the cylinder head.
(Refer to Cylinder Head Assembly - “Cylinder Head”)
12.
Remove the oil pan and the oil screen.
(Refer to Lubrication System - “Oil pan”)
13.
Remove the ladder frame.
(Refer to Cylinder Block - “Cylinder Block”)
14.
Check the connecting rod side clearance.
15.
Check the connecting rod bearing cap oil clearance.
16.
Remove the piston and connecting rod assemblies.
(1)
Using a ridge reamer, remove all the carbon from the top of the cylinder.
(2)
Remove the connecting rod caps (A).

   
Mark the connecting rod caps for reassembly in the original position and direction.
(3)
Push the piston, connecting rod assembly and upper bearing through the top of the cylinder block.
   
Keep the connecting rod ands cap with their bearings assembled together.
Arrange the piston and connecting rod assemblies in the correct order.
Mark the piston and connecting rod assemblies for reassembly in the original position.
17.
Check for fit between piston and piston pin.
Try to move the piston back and forth on the piston pin. If any movement is felt, replace the piston and pin as a set.
18.
Disassemble the piston rings.
(1)
Using a piston ring expander, remove the 2 compression rings (A).
(2)
Remove the oil ring and coil spring (B) by hand.
   
Do not apply excessive force when removing the oil ring from the piston as it may break the oil ring.
   
Arrange the piston rings in the correct order only.
19.
Disassemble the connecting rod from the piston.
(1)
Remove the snap ring (C) from the piston.
(2)
Using a press, remove the piston pin (D) from the piston.
(3)
Disassemble the piston (F) and connecting rod (E).

Inspection
Connecting Rod
1.
Check the connecting rod end play.
Using a feeler gauge, measure the end play while moving the connecting rod back and forth.
Standard end play :
0.10 - 0.25 mm (0.0039 - 0.0098 in)

(1)
If out-of-tolerance, install a new connecting rod.
(2)
If still out-of-tolerance, replace the crankshaft.
2.
Check the connecting rod bearing oil clearance.
(1)
Check that the match marks on the connecting rod and cap are aligned to ensure correct reassembly.
(2)
Remove the 2 connecting rod cap bolts.
(3)
Remove the connecting rod cap and lower bearing.
(4)
Clean the crank pin journal and bearing.
(5)
Place a plastigage across the crankshaft pin journal.
(6)
Reinstall the lower bearing and cap, and tighten the bolts.
Tightening torque :
10.8 - 14.7 N·m (1.1 - 1.5 kgf·m, 8.0 - 10.8 lb·ft) + 88 - 92°
   
Do not turn the crankshaft.
Always use new connecting rod cap bolts. Connecting rod cap bolts are torque-to-yield bolts designed to be permanently elongated beyond the state of elasticity when torqued, so if the bolts are removed and reused, it may cause the bolts to break or fail to maintain clamping force.
(7)
Remove the 2 bolts, connecting rod cap and lower bearing.
(8)
Measure the plastigage at its widest point.
Standard oil clearance :
0.018 - 0.036 mm (0.0007 - 0.0014 in)

(9)
If the plastigage measures too wide or too narrow, remove the upper and lower bearings and then install new bearings of the same color mark. Recheck the oil clearance.
   
Do not file, shim, or scrape the bearings or the caps to adjust clearance.
(10)
If the plastigage shows that the clearance is still incorrect, try the next lager or smaller bearing.
(Refer to connecting rod bearing selection table.) Recheck the oil clearance.
   
If the proper clearance cannot be obtained by using the appropriate larger or smaller bearings, replace the crankshaft and start over.
   
If the alignment marks are illegible due to an accumulation of grease or grime, clean with appropriate solvent or detergent only instead of using a wire or abrasive cleaner.
(11)
Select the bearing from the selection table.
Connecting Rod Mark Location

Discrimination Of Connecting Rod
Grade
Mark
Connecting Rod Big-end Inner Diameter
0
A
42.000 - 42.006 mm
(1.6535 - 1.6540 in)
1
B
42.006 - 42.012 mm
(1.6537 - 1.6540 in)
2
C
42.012 - 42.018 mm
(1.6540 - 1.6542 in)

Crankshaft Pin Journal Mark Location

Discrimination Of Crankshaft Pin Journal
Class
Mark
Crankshaft Pin Journal outer Diameter
I
1
38.966 - 38.972 mm
(1.5340 - 1.5343 in)
II
2
38.960 - 38.966 mm
(1.5338 - 1.5340 in)
III
3
38.954 - 38.960 mm
(1.7698 - 1.7701 in)

Connecting Rod Bearing Mark Location

Discrimination Of Connecting Rod Bearing
Grade
Color
Connecting Rod Bearing Thickness
A
Blue
1.514 - 1.517 mm
(0.0596 - 0.0597 in)
B
Black
1.511 - 1.514 mm
(0.0595 - 0.0596 in)
C
None
1.508 - 1.511 mm
(0.0594 - 0.0595 in)
D
Green
1.505 - 1.508 mm
(0.0593 - 0.0594 in)
E
Yellow
1.502 - 1.505 mm
(0.0591 - 0.0593 in)

(12)
Select the bearing from the selection table.
Connecting Rod Bearing Selection Table
Connecting Rod Bearing
Connecting Rod Mark
0(A)
1(B)
2(C)
Crank shaft pin journal mark
I(1)
E(Yellow)
D(Green)
C(None)
II(2)
D(Green)
C(None)
B(Black)
III(3)
C(None)
B(Black)
A(Blue)

Piston
1.
Clean piston
(1)
Using a gasket scraper, remove the carbon from the piston top.
(2)
Using a groove cleaning tool or broken ring, clean the piston ring grooves.
(3)
Using solvent and a brush, thoroughly clean the piston.
   
Do not use a wire brush.
2.
Check the piston-to-cylinder clearance by calculating the difference between the cylinder bore inner diameter and the piston outer diameter.
Piston to cylinder clearance :
0.025 - 0.045 mm (0.0010 - 0.0018 in.)
(1)
Using a cylinder bore gauge, measure the cylinder bore diameter at position in the thrust and axial direction.
Standard diameter :
71.00 - 71.03 mm (2.7952 - 2.7964 in)

(2)
The standard measurement of the piston outer diameter is taken at 30 mm (1.18 in.) from the top land of the piston.
Standard diameter :
70.965 - 70.995 mm (2.7939 - 2.7951 in.)

3.
Select the piston matching with cylinder bore class.
(1)
Check the cylinder bore size code on the cylinder block side surface.

Cylinder Bore Inner Diameter
Class
Mark
Inside Diameter
a
A
71.00 - 71.01 mm
(2.79528 - 2.79567 in.)
b
B
71.01 - 71.02 mm
(2.79567 - 2.79606 in.)
c
C
71.02 - 71.03 mm
(2.79606 - 2.79646 in.)

(2)
Check the piston size mark on the piston top face.

Piston Outer Diameter
Class
Mark
Inside Diameter
a
A
70.965 - 70.975 mm
(2.79390 - 2.79429 in.)
b
B
70.975 - 70.985 mm
(2.79429 - 2.79469 in.)
c
C
70.985 - 70.995 mm
(2.79469 - 2.79508 in.)

Piston Rings
1.
Inspect the piston ring side clearance.
Using a feeler gauge, measure the clearance between new piston ring and the wall of the ring groove.
Piston ring groove width
No.1 : 1.235 - 1.250 mm (0.0486 - 0.0492 in)
No.2 : 1.23 - 1.25 mm (0.0484 - 0.0492 in)
Oil ring : 2.010 - 2.025 mm (0.0791 - 0.0797 in)
Piston ring width
No.1 : 1.170 - 1.185 mm (0.0461 - 0.0467 in)
No.2 : 1.17 - 1.19 mm (0.0460 - 0.0468 in)
Oil ring : 1.90 - 1.96 mm (0.0748 - 0.0772 in)
Piston ring side clearance
No.1 : 0.05 - 0.08 mm (0.0020 - 0.0031 in)
No.2 : 0.04 - 0.08 mm (0.0015 - 0.0031 in)
Oil ring : 0.050 - 0.125 mm (0.0020 - 0.0049 in)

If the clearance is greater than maximum, replace the piston.
2.
Inspect piston ring end gap.
To measure the piston ring end gap, insert a piston ring into the cylinder bore. Position the ring at right angles to the cylinder wall by gently pressing it down with a piston. Measure the gap with a feeler gauge. If the gap exceeds the service limit, replace the piston ring. If the gap is too large, recheck the cylinder bore diameter against the wear limits. If the bore is over the service limit, the cylinder block must be replaced.
Piston ring end gap
No.1 : 0.13 - 0.23mm (0.0051 - 0.0091 in)
No.2 : 0.25 - 0.40 mm (0.0098 - 0.0157 in)
Oil ring : 0.2 - 0.7 mm (0.0079 - 0.0276 in)

Piston Pins
1.
Measure the diameter of the piston pin.
Piston pin outer diameter :
17.997 - 18.000 mm (0.7085 - 0.7086 in)

2.
Measure the pin-to-piston clearance.
Piston pin to piston clearance :
0.005 - 0.012 mm (0.0002 - 0.0005 in)
3.
Check the difference between the piston pin outer diameter and the connecting rod small end inner diameter.
Piston pin to connecting rod clearance :
0.005 - 0.014 mm (0.0002 - 0.0006 in)
Reassembly
   
Thoroughly clean all parts to be assembled.
Before installing the parts, apply fresh engine oil to all sliding and rotating surfaces.
Replace all gaskets, O-rings and oil seals with new parts.
1.
Assemble the piston and connecting rod.
(1)
Install the snap ring (A) on one side of the piston pin hole.

(2)
Align the piston front mark (A) and the connecting rod front mark (B).

(3)
Insert the piston pin (A) into the piston pin hole and the small end bore of connecting rod.
(4)
Install the snap ring (B) on the other side after inserting the piston pin.

   
Apply a sufficient amount of engine oil to outer surface of the piston, inner surface of piston pin hole and small end bore of the connecting rod before inserting the piston pin.
Be careful not to damage and scratch the small end bore, piston pin hole and piston pin when inserting the piston pin.
Set the snap ring firmly so that the snap ring can contact with the whole groove of the piston pin hole.
2.
Install the piston rings.
(1)
Install the oil ring expander and 2 side rails by hand.
(2)
Using a piston ring expander, install the 2 compression rings with the code mark facing upward.
(3)
Position the piston rings so that the ring ends are as shown.

3.
Install the connecting rod bearings.
(1)
Align the bearing claw with the groove of the connecting rod and connecting rod cap.
(2)
Install the bearings (A) to the connecting rod and connecting rod cap (B).

4.
Install the piston and connecting rod assemblies.
   
Before installing the pistons, apply a coat of engine oil to the ring grooves and cylinder bores.
The piston front mark (A) and the connecting rod front mark (B) must face the timing chain side of the engine.

(1)
Install the ring compressor, and check that the bearing is securely in place. Then, position the piston in the cylinder, and tap it in by using the wooden handle of a hammer.

(2)
Once the ring compressor pops free, stop inserting and check the alignment of connecting rod with journal before pushing the piston into place.
(3)
Apply engine oil to the bolt threads. Install the rod caps with bearings, and tighten the bolts.
Tightening torque :
10.8 - 14.7 N·m (1.1 - 1.5 kgf·m, 8.0 - 10.8 lb·ft) + 88 - 92°

   
Always use new connecting rod cap bolts. Connecting rod cap bolts are torque-to-yield bolts designed to be permanently elongated beyond the state of elasticity when torqued, so if the bolts are removed and reused, it may cause the bolts to break or fail to maintain clamping force.
5.
Check the side clearance between piston and connecting rod.
6.
Assemble the remaining parts in the reverse order of disassembly.
Rear Oil Seal
Repair procedures Replacement 1.Remove the transaxle assembly. (Refer to Manual Transaxle System - "Manual Transaxle") 2.Remove the flywheel. (Refer to Cylinder Block ...

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Repair procedures Disassembly    • Use fender covers to avoid damaging painted surfaces.• To avoid damaging the ...

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