Kia Picanto: Engine Control / Fuel System

Kia Picanto JA 2017-2021 Service & Repair Manual / Engine Control / Fuel System

Specifications
Specifications
Fuel Delivery System
Items
Specification
Fuel Tank
Capacity
35 L (9.2 U.S. gal, 37.0 U.S. qt, 30.8 lmp.qt.)
Fuel Filter
Type
Paper type
Fuel Pressure
Low Pressure Fuel Line
480 - 520 kPa (4.9 - 5.3 kgf/cm² , 69.6 - 75.4 psi)
High Pressure Fuel Line
2 - 20 MPa ( 20.4 - 203.9 kgf/cm² , 290.1 - 2900.8 psi)
Fuel Pump
Type
Electrical, in-tank type
Driven by
Electric motor
High Pressure Fuel Pump
Type
Mechanical type
Driven by
Camshaft

Sensors
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) [integrated into ETC module]
Item
Opening Percentage (%)
Output Voltage (V) [Vref = 5V]
TPS1
C.T
8.5 - 11.5
0.43 - 0.58
W.O.T
88 - 96
4.40 - 4.80
TPS2
C.T
88.5 - 91.5
4.43 - 4.58
W.O.T
2 - 10
0.10 - 0.50
Fail Safe
Throttle valve stuck at 5°
Supply Voltage (V)
4.8 - 5.2
Type
Hall IC Non-contact sensor [Integrated into ETC Module]

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS)
▷ Type: Piezo-resistive pressure sensor type
Pressure
[kPa (kgf/cm², psi)]
Output Voltage (V) [Vref = 5V]
32.5 (0.33, 4.71)
0.5
284 (2.90, 41.19)
4.5

Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IATS)
▷ Type: Thermistor type
Temperature
Resistance (kΩ)
°C
°F
-40
-40
40.93 - 48.35
-30
-22
23.43 - 27.34
-20
-4
13.89 - 16.03
-10
14
8.5 - 9.7
0
32
5.38 - 6.09
10
50
3.48 - 3.90
20
68
2.31 - 2.57
30
86
1.9 - 2.1
40
104
1.08 - 1.21
50
122
0.76 - 0.85
60
140
0.54 - 0.62
70
158
0.40 - 0.45
80
176
0.29 - 0.34
90
194
0.22 - 0.26
100
212
0.17 - 0.20
110
230
0.13 - 0.15
120
248
0.10 - 0.12
130
266
0.08 - 0.09

Ambient Temperature Sensor(ATS)
▷Type : Thermistor type
Temperature[⁰C(⁰F)]
Resistance(kΩ)
-40(-40)
811.1 - 956.8
-20(-4)
255.6 - 287.7
0(32)
91.5 - 98.8
20(68)
36.6 - 38.0
30(86)
23.8 - 24.7
40(104)
15.7 - 16.6
50(122)
10.6 - 11.3
60(140)
7.2 - 7.9
80(176)
3.6 - 4.0

Boost Pressure Sensor (BPS)
Pressure
[kPa (kgf/cm², psi)]
Output Voltage (V) [Vref = 5V]
32.5 (0.33, 4.71)
0.5
284 (2.90, 41.19)
4.5

▷ Type: Piezo-resistive pressure sensor type
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECTS)
▷ Type: Thermistor type
Temperature
Resistance (kΩ)
°C
°F
-40
-40
48.14
-20
-4
14.13 - 16.83
0
32
5.79
20
68
2.31 - 2.59
40
104
1.15
60
140
0.59
80
176
0.32
100
212
0.19
110
230
0.145 - 0.149
120
248
0.12

Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKPS)
NON- ISG
Item
Specification
Type
Magnetic field sensitive type
Coil Resistance (Ω)
819 - 1001 [20°C (68°F)]
Pin
2

ISG only
Item
Specification
Type
Hall effect type
Air Gap (mm)
0.5 - 1.5
Pin
3

Camshaft Position Sensor (CMPS)
Item
Specification
Type
Hall effect type
Air Gap (mm)
0.5 - 1.5
Pin
3

Knock Sensor (KS)
Item
Specification
Resistance(MΩ)
4.87
Capacitance (pF)
850 - 1150
Type
Piezo-electricity
Pin
2

Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S)
HO2S [Bank 1/Sensor 1]
Item
Specification
Heater Resistance (Ω)
2.5 - 4.0 [20°C(68°F)]
Type
Linear
Pin
6

HO2S [Bank 1/Sensor 2]
Item
Specification
Heater Resistance (Ω)
Approximately 9.0 [20°C(68°F)]
Type
Binary
Pin
4

Rail Pressure Sensor (RPS)
Item
Specification
Rated Voltage (V)
5
Operating Voltage (V)
4.75 - 5.25
Connector
3

Pressure
Output Voltage (V) [Vref=5V]
bar
[MPa (kgf/cm², psi)]
0
0 (0, 0)
0.5
175
14 (142, 2031)
2.5
350
28 (286, 4061)
4.5

Accelerator Position Sensor (APS)
Accelerator
Position
Output Voltage (V) [Vref = 5V]
APS1
APS2
C.T
0.7 - 0.8
0.32 - 0.42
W.O.T
3.98 - 4.22
1.93 - 2.17

Electric WGT Control Actuator Sensor [integrated into EWGA]
Item
Specification
Supply Voltage (V)
4 -6

Actator
DC Motor [integrated into ETC module]
Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
0.3 - 100 [20°C(68°F)]
Maximum Allowable Current (A)
< 10.0
Type
DC Motor [Integrated into ETC Module]

Injector
Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
1.43 - 1.57 (23°C)
Fuel Pressure
bar
200 - 267
MPa
20.0 - 26.7
kgf/cm²
203 - 2722.6
psi
2900 - 3872.5
Pin
2

Purge Control Solenoid Valve (PCSV)
Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
18.5 - 22.5 [23°C(73.4°F)]
Pin
2

CVVT Oil Control Valve (OCV)
Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
6.9 - 7.9 [20°C(68°F)]
Control Current (mA)
100 - 1000
Reted Voltage (V)
12
Insulation resistance (MΩ)
50 [DC 500 V/1 Min]
Pin
2

Electric WGT Control Actuator DC Motor [integrated into EWGA]
Item
Specification
Max Current (A)
< 6.0
Coil Resistance (Ω)
2.4 ± 0.36
Supply Voltage (V)
13.5
Supply Voltage Range (V)
9 - 16
Operating Frequency (kHz)
0.9 - 1.1

RCV Control Solenoid Valve
Item
Specification
Coil Resistance(Ω)
28.3-31.1 [20°C(68°F)]
Pin
2

Fuel Pressure Control Valve (FPCV)
Item
Specification
Coil Resistance (Ω)
0.54 [20°C(68°F)]
Pin
2
Peak Current (A)
5.3
Holding Current (A)
2.68
High Pressure Fuel Pressure
bar
20 - 200
MPa
2 - 20
kgf/cm²
20.4 - 203.9
psi
290.1 - 2900.8

Service Standard
Item
Specification
Ignition Timing (°)
BTDC 0° ± 10°
Idle Speed (rpm)
A/C OFF
(Neutral, N, P-range)
850 ± 100
A/C ON
850 ± 100

Tightening Torques
Engine Control System
Item
kgf·m
N·m
lb·ft
ECM bracket mounting bolt / nut
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
ECM mounting nut
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) moule mounting bolt
0.8 - 1.0
7.8 - 9.8
5.7 - 7.2
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS) mounting screw
0.65 - 0.85
6.4 - 8.3
4.7 - 6.1
Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IATS) mounting screw
0.65 - 0.85
6.4 - 8.3
4.7 - 6.1
Boost Pressure Sensor (BPS) mounting bolt
0.8 - 1.2
7.8 - 11.7
5.7 - 8.6
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor (ECTS)
2.0 - 4.0
19.6 - 39.2
14.4 - 28.9
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKPS) mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMPS) [Bank 1 / Intake] mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Camshaft Position Sensor (CMPS) [Bank 1 / Exhaust] mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Knock Sensor (KS) mounting bolt
1.9 - 2.4
18.6 - 23.5
13.7 - 17.3
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) [Bank 1 / sensor 1]
4.0 - 5.0
39.2 - 49.1
28.9 - 36.2
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) [Bank 1 / sensor 2]
4.0 - 5.0
39.2 - 49.1
28.9 - 36.2
Rail Pressure Sensor (RPS)
3.1 - 4.1
30.0 - 35.0
22.1 - 29.5
Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor (APS) mounting nut
[APS integrated into Accelerator pedal module]
1.3 - 1.6
12.7 - 15.7
9.4 - 11.6
Purge Control Solenoid Valve (PCSV) bracket mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
CVVT Oil Control Valve (OCV) [Bank 1 / Intake] mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
CVVT Oil Control Valve (OCV) [Bank 1 / Exhaust] mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
Electric Waste Gate Actuator (EWGA) mounting bolt
0.6 - 0.8
6.0 - 8.0
4.4 - 5.9
RCV control solenoid valve bracket mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7

Fuel Delivery System
Item
kgf·m
N·m
lb·ft
Fuel tank mounting nut
4.0 - 5.5
39.2 - 54.0
28.9 - 39.8
Fuel pump plate cover mounting bolt
0.2 - 0.3
2.0 - 2.9
1.4 - 2.2
Filler - neck assembly mounting bolt
0.8 - 1.2
7.8 - 11.8
5.8 - 8.7
Filler - neck assembly bracket mounting bolt
0.8 - 1.2
7.8 - 11.8
5.8 - 8.7
Delivery pipe & injector assembly mounting bolt
1.9 - 2.4
18.6 - 23.5
13.7 - 17.4
High pressure fuel pipe flange nut
2.7 - 3.3
26.5 - 32.4
9.5 - 23.9
High pressure fuel pipe function block mounting bolt
1.0 - 1.2
9.8 - 11.8
7.2 - 8.7
High pressure fuel pump mounting bolt
1.3 - 1.5
12.8 - 14.7
9.4 - 10.9

Special service tools
Special Service Tools
Tool Name / Number
Illustration
Description
Fuel pressure gauge
09353-24100

Used for measuring the pressure in fuel line
Fuel pressure gauge adapter
0K353-D4100

Used for connecting between high pressure fuel pump and low pressure fuel feed tube to measure the pressure in fuel line
Heated oxygen sensor socket wrench
09392-1Y100

Used for removing / installing heated oxygen sensor

※SST 09392-2H100 also can be used
Torque wrench socket
09314-3Q100 or 09314-27130(19mm)

Used for removing / installing high pressure fuel pipe
Injector combustion seal guide & sizing tool
09353-2B000

Used for installing injector combustion seal on injector

Troubleshooting
Basic Troubleshooting
Basic Troubleshooting Guide

Customer Problem Analysis Sheet

Basic Inspection Procedure
Measuring Condition of Electronic Parts' Resistance
The measured resistance at high temperature after vehicle running may be high or low. So all resistance must be measured at ambient temperature (20°C, 68°F), unless stated otherwise.
   
The resistance measured outside the ambient temperature (20°C, 68°F) is the reference value.
Intermittent Problem Inspection Procedure
Sometimes the most difficult case in troubleshooting is when a problem symptom occurs but does not recur when tested. An example would be if a problem appears only when the vehicle is cold but has not appeared when warm. In this case, the technician should thoroughly make out a "Customer Problem Analysis Sheet" and recreate (simulate) the environment and condition in which the vehicle was having the issue.
1.
Clear Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC).
2.
Inspect connector connection, and check terminal for poor connections, loose wires, bent, broken or corroded pins, and then verify that the connectors are always securely fastened.

3.
Slightly shake the connector and wiring harness vertically and horizontally.
4.
Repair or replace the component with a problem.
5.
Perform road test to verify that the problem has disappeared.
● Simulating Vibration
a.
Sensors and Actuators
: Slightly vibrate sensors, actuators or relays by finger.
   
Strong vibration may break sensors, actuators or relays
b.
Connectors and Harness
: Lightly shake the connector and wiring harness vertically and then horizontally.
● Simulating Heat
a.
Heat components suspected of causing the malfunction with a hair dryer or other heat source.
   
DO NOT heat components to the point where they may be damaged.
DO NOT heat the ECM directly.
● Simulating Water Sprinkling
a.
Sprinkle water onto vehicle to simulate a rainy day or a high humidity condition.
   
DO NOT sprinkle water directly onto the engine compartment or electronic components.
● Simulating Electrical Load
a.
Turn on all electrical systems to simulate excessive electrical loads (Radios, fans, lights, rear window defogger, etc.).
Connector Inspection Procedure
1.
Handling of Connector
a.
Never pull on the wiring harness when disconnecting connectors.

b.
When removing the connector with a lock, press or pull locking lever.

c.
Listen for a click when locking connectors. This sound indicates that they are securely locked.

d.
When a tester is used to check for continuity, or to measure voltage, always insert tester probe from wire harness side.

e.
Check waterproof connector terminals from the connector side. Waterproof connectors cannot be accessed from harness side.

   
Use a fine wire to prevent damage to the terminal.
Do not damage the terminal when inserting the tester lead.
2.
Checking Point for Connector
a.
While the connector is connected:
Hold the connector, check connecting condition and locking efficiency.
b.
When the connector is disconnected:
Check missed terminal, crimped terminal or broken core wire by slightly pulling the wire harness.
Visually check for rust, contamination, deformation and bend.
c.
Check terminal tightening condition:
Insert a spare male terminal into a female terminal, and then check terminal tightening conditions.
d.
Lightly pull on each wire to ensure that all wires are secured in the terminal.

3.
Repairing Connector Terminal
a.
Clean the contact points using air gun and/or shop rag.
   
Never use sand paper when polishing the contact points, otherwise the contact point may be damaged.
b.
In case of abnormal contact pressure, replace the female terminal.
Wire Harness Inspection Procedure
1.
Before removing the wire harness, check the wire harness position and crimping in order to restore it correctly.
2.
Check for twisted, pulled or loose wire harness.
3.
Check for abnormally high temperature of wire harness.
4.
Check if the wire harness is rotating, moving or vibrating against the sharp edge of a part.
5.
Check the connection between the wire harness and any installed part.
6.
If the covering of wire harness is damaged; secure, repair or replace the harness.
Electrical Circuit Inspection Procedure
● Check Open Circuit
1.
Procedures for Open Circuit
Continuity Check
Voltage Check
If an open circuit occurs (as seen in [FIG. 1]), it can be found by performing Step 2 (Continuity Check Method) or Step 3 (Voltage Check Method) as shown below.

2.
Continuity Check Method
   
When measuring the resistance, lightly shake the wire harness vertically or horizontally.
Specification (Resistance)
1Ω or less → Normal Circuit
1MΩ or Higher → Open Circuit
a.
Disconnect connectors (A) and (C) and measure resistance between connectors (A) and (C) as shown in [FIG. 2].
In [FIG. 2], the measured resistance is higher than 1MΩ for line 1 and lower than 1Ω for line 2. Specifically, the open circuit is in line 1. (Line 2 is normal.) To find exact breaking point, check sub line of line 1 as described in the following step.

b.
Disconnect the connector (B), and measure the resistance between connectors (C) and (B1) and between (B2) and (A) as shown in [FIG. 3].
In this case, the measured resistance between connectors (C) and (B1) is higher than 1MΩ and the open circuit is between terminal 1 of connector (C) and terminal 1 of connector (B1).

3.
Voltage Check Method
a.
With each connector still connected, measure the voltage between the chassis ground and terminal 1 of each of connectors (A), (B) and (C) as shown in [FIG. 4].
The measured voltage of each connector is 5V, 5V and 0V respectively. So the open circuit is between connector (C) and (B).

● Check Short Circuit
1.
Test Method for Short to Ground Circuit
Continuity Check with Chassis Ground
If short to ground circuit occurs as shown in [FIG. 5], the broken point can be found by performing Step 2 (Continuity Check Method with Chassis Ground) as shown below.

2.
Continuity Check Method (with Chassis Ground)
   
Lightly shake the wire harness vertically or horizontally when measuring the resistance.
Specification (Resistance)
1Ω or less → Short to Ground Circuit
1MΩ or Higher → Normal Circuit
a.
Disconnect connectors (A) and (C) and measure the resistance between connector (A) and Chassis Ground as shown in [FIG. 6].
The measured resistance is below 1 Ω for line 1 and higher than 1 MΩ for line 2. Specifically, the short to ground circuit is in line 1. (Line 2 is normal.) To find exact broken point, check the sub line of line 1 as described in the following step.

b.
Disconnect connector (B), and measure the resistance between connector (A) and chassis ground, and between (B1) and chassis ground as shown in [FIG. 7].
The measured resistance between connector (B1) and chassis ground is 1Ω or less. The short to ground circuit is between terminal 1 of connector (C) and terminal 1 of connector (B1).

● Testing For Voltage Drop
This test checks for voltage drop along a wire, or through a connection orswitch.
A.
Connect the positive lead of a voltmeter to the end of the wire (or to the side of the connector or switch) closest to the battery.
B.
Connect the negative lead to the other end of the wire. (or the other side of the connector or switch)
C.
Operate the circuit.
D.
The voltmeter will show the difference in voltage between the two points. A difference, or drop of more than 0.1 volts (50mV in 5V circuits), may indicate a problem. Check the circuit for loose or dirty connections.

Symptom Troubleshooting Guide Chart
Main symptom
Diagnostic procedure
Also check for
Unable to start
(Engine does not turn over)
1)
Test the battery.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")
2)
Test the starter.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Starter")
3)
Clutch start switch (M/T)

Unable to start
(Incomplete combustion)
1)
Test the battery.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")
2)
Check the fuel pressure
3)
Check the ignition circuit.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")
4)
Troubleshoot the immobilizer system.
(Refer to Body Electrical System - "Immobilizer System")
(In case immobilizer lamp flashes)
DTC
Low compression
Intake air leaks
Slipped or broken timing belt
Contaminated fuel
Difficult to start
1)
Test the battery.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")
2)
Check the fuel pressure
3)
Check the ECT sensor and circuit (Check DTC)
4)
Check the ignition circuit.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")
DTC
Low compression
Intake air leaks
Contaminated fuel
Weak ignition spark
Poor idling
(Rough, unstable or incorrect Idle)
1)
Check the fuel pressure.
2)
Check the Injector.
(Refer to Engine Control System - "Injector")
3)
Check the long term fuel trim and short term fuel trim
(Refer to CUSTOMER DATASTREAM)
4)
Check the idle speed control circuit (Check DTC)
5)
Inspect and test the Throttle Body
6)
Check the ECT sensor and circuit (Check DTC)
DTC
Low compression
Intake air leaks
Contaminated fuel
Weak ignition spark
Engine stall
1)
Test the battery.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Battery")
2)
Check the fuel pressure.
(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")
3)
Check the idle speed control circuit (Check DTC)
4)
Check the ignition circuit.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")
5)
Check the CKPS Circuit (Check DTC)
DTC
Intake air leaks
Contaminated fuel
Weak ignition spark
Poor driving
(Surge)
1)
Check the fuel pressure.
(Refer to Fuel Delivery System - "Fuel Pressure Test")
2)
Inspect and test Throttle Body
3)
Check the ignition circuit.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")
4)
Check the ECT Sensor and Circuit (Check DTC)
5)
Test the exhaust system for a possible restriction.
(Refer to Engine Mechanical System - "Turbo Charger & Exhaust Manifold")
6)
Check the long term fuel trim and short term fuel trim (Refer to CUSTOMER DATASTREAM)
DTC
Low compression
Intake air leaks
Contaminated fuel
Weak ignition spark
Knocking
1)
Check the fuel pressure.
(Refer to Delivery System - "Release Residual Pressure in Fuel Line”)
2)
Inspect the engine coolant.
(Engine Mechanical System - "Radiator")
3)
Inspect the radiator and the electric cooling fan.
(Engine Mechanical System - "Radiator")
4)
Check the spark plugs.
(Refer to Engine Electrical System - "Ignition System")
DTC
Contaminated fuel
Poor fuel economy
1)
Check customer's driving habits
· A/C on full time or the defroster mode on?
· Are tires at correct pressure?
· Is excessively heavy load being carried?
· Is acceleration too much, too often?
2)
Check the fuel pressure.
(Refer to Delivery System - "Release Residual Pressure in Fuel Line”)
3)
Check the injector.
(Refer to Engine Control System - "Injector")
4)
Test the exhaust system for a possible restriction
5)
Check the ECT sensor and circuit
DTC
Low compression
Intake air leaks
Contaminated fuel
Weak ignition spark
Hard to refuel
(Overflow during refueling)
1)
Inspect the fuel filler hose/pipe
· Pinched, kinked or blocked?
· Filler hose is torn
2)
Inspect the fuel tank vapor vent hose between the EVAP. canister and air filter
3)
Check the EVAP. canister
Malfunctioning gas station filling nozzle (If this problem occurs at a specific gas station during refueling)

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Engine Control System
Components and components location Components Location 1. ECM (Engine Control Module) 2. Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS) 3. Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IATS) 4. Boost Pressure Se ...

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